MacBook Battery Compatibility
MacBook Air 11" batteries are electrically compatible with all models. The 2010 battery (A1406) connector is physically in a different location and will not fit in the housing of the 2011-2015 battery (A1495). The 2010-2012 battery has a 35 Wh capacity vs the 2013-2015 at 38 Wh.
MacBook Air 13" unibody batteries are electrically compatible with all models. The 2010 (A1377) and 2011-2012 (A1405) battery have a lower capacity at 50 Wh 7.3 V vs the 2013-2017 battery (A1496) at 54 Wh.
MacBook Pro 13"
The MacBook Pro 13" unibody batteries are electrically compatible with all models. The 2009 battery has a lower capacity at 58 Wh vs the 2010-2012 battery (A1322) at 63.5 Wh 10.95 V.
The MacBook Pro 13" Retina 2012-E2013 batteries (A1437) are the same at 74 Wh.
The MacBook Pro 13" Retina L2013-2014 batteries (A1493) are the same at 71.8 Wh.
The MacBook Pro 13" Retina L2015 battery (A1582) is 71.8 Wh 13.05 V.
2015 13" Retina batteries will work in L2013-E2014 machines.
MacBook Pro 15"
The MacBook Pro 15" 2009-2010 batteries are electrically compatible. The 2009 battery has a lower capacity at 73 Wh vs the 2010 battery (A1321) at 77.5 Wh.
The MacBook Pro 15" 2011-2012 batteries (A1382) are the same at 77.5 Wh.
The MacBook Pro 15" Retina 2012-E2013 batteries (A1417) are 95Whr at 10.95V. Comparison with 2015 shown in photo.
The MacBook Pro 15" Retina L2013-2014 batteries (A1494) are 95Whr at 11.26V.
(The MacBook Pro 15" Retina 2012-2014 batteries are the same capacity at 95 Wh 10.95 V. They are electrically compatible, but have the connector in a physically different location. 2012-E2013 (A1417) 2014 (A1494) [verify])
The MacBook Pro 15" Retina 2015 battery (A1618) has a capacity of 99.5Whr at 11.36V.
Quick Reference List of Battery Compatibility
Here is a quick list that I didn't make, but dukefawks posted a while back on the rossmann forum, this list is a quick lookup for which batteries work with which models.
A1278 2009-2015 = A1322
A1286 2009-2010 = A1321
A1286 2011-2012 = A1322
A1297 2009-2010 = A1309
A1297 2011-2011 = A1383
A1369 2010-2010 = A1377
A1369/A1466 2011-2012 = A1405
A1466 2013-201x = A1396
A1370 2010-2010 = A1375
A1370/A1465 2011-2012 = A1406
A1465 2013-201x = A1495
A1425 2012-2012 = A1437
A1502 2013-2015 = A1493
A1502 2015-201x = A1582
A1398 2012-2013 = A1417
A1398 2013-2016 = A1618