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Modern (Intel) Macs
NOTE: Macs with a firmware password will not allow booting from a different volume without password. They will not PRAM.
- Command + R: Start up from built in recovery mode.
Macs upgraded to macOS 10.12.4 or later:
- Option + Command + R: Start up from latest internet recovery compatible with your Mac.
- Shift + Option + Command + R: Start up from internet recovery closest to original macOS that came with your Mac.
Macs not upgraded to macOS 10.12.4 or later:
- Option + Command + R: Start up from internet recovery closest to original macOS that came with your Mac.
- Option + Command + P + R: Reset NVRAM/PRAM. This will reset screen brightness, volume, default boot drive to first available storage device (usually internal HDD/SSD), Bluetooth/WiFi settings, Find My [Mac] token, display resolution, and Gpu selection.
- Left Control + Left Option + Right Shift + Power (7-45 seconds) - For Notebooks with T2 Chip
- Left Shift + Left Control + Left Option + Power -For Notebooks with non-removable battery and no T2
- All others - Discharge machine
- Option: Use the Start Up Manager. Newer Macs allow WiFi booting and selection of NetBoot volumes from this screen.
- Shift: Start up in safe mode.
- D: Start up the build in Apple Hardware Test (AHT).
- Option + D: Start up the internet Apple Hardware Test (AHT).
- N: Start up from the last or default NetBoot volume.
- Option + N: Start up from the default NetBoot volume.
- Command + S: Start up in single user mode.
- T: Start up in target disk mode.
- Command + V: Start up in verbose mode.
- Eject, F12, or pointer button: Eject removable devices.
- C: Boot from optical drive.